Wheat Protein or Gluten is also used to make seitan which also has a savory taste and a meat-like structure.
Rice Protein Isolate is a plant-based protein that can be used on its own or in combination with other plant-proteins.
Other protein sources with potential for inclusion in plant-based meats include spirulina, peanut protein concentrate, rapeseed meal, quinoa and protein from surplus potatoes.
The Binders and Texturizing Agents
To develop a plant-based recipe that could mimic the organoleptic properties of a traditional meat requires the addition of a wide array of ingredients which could act as stabilizers, gelling agents, thickeners, and emulsifiers. These ingredients will help bind the water and fat presents in the formulation and will adhere to the plant proteins, resulting in a good texture and mouthfeel of plant-based meats. Methylcellulose is the most common binder used in plant-based meat, other than this, carrageenan, locust bean gum, calcium alginate products can also be used. New studies and work in our innovation center have shown excellent results in the final products with the use of citrus fibers or fiber-rich fraction of cereals.
Egg whites or albumen can also be used to provide the desired function to emulsify and bind ingredients however, this would not allow for plant-based or vegan claims and consumers of plant-based products are demanding foods are preferring foods which are completely free of animal products, hence the use of egg ingredients are declining in popularity.